AATE 2019 Conference Reflections

To be ‘outside the square’ is to be OTHER

The square restricts, ticking boxes becomes the main game

We lose focus on what matters

To be made to sit in a square is to be assimilated: the square controls.

The square limits what you can become

It squeezes teachers and they become paranoid about transgressing boundaries

The square is lodged inside us and remains even if/when we return to our circle way of life

Round peg in a square hole.


In today’s AATE Pre-Conference Institute about Selecting and Teaching Indigenous Texts in the English Classroom, poet Ali Cobby Eckermann invited a response from the audience to her poem ‘Circles and Squares’ from her first collection, A little bit long time.

She asked us what we interpreted the squares in her poem to represent. She suggested that this may explain something about the hesitation teachers feel about introducing Indigenous texts into the classroom.

It struck me that not only do the squares represent the dominant colonising culture that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have had to contend with since 1788, but that the squares actually colonise us all:

– teachers are pushed into squares by government syllabi and standards, by timetables, by colleagues, by the families they work with, by social commentary about what is and is not acceptable in talking about Indigenous peoples, cultures and histories.

– Indigenous students are pushed into squares – disengaged, disadvantaged – the deficit rhetoric.

There is enormous value in slowing down awhile to resist the squeeze of the squares.  I urge teachers to make the time in their classrooms for this to happen.

Some of the key messages from acclaimed Aboriginal authors and academics at today’s Institute are collected at the bottom of this post.

The day ended with the official conference opening. It was an opportunity to mark and mourn the current reality facing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: children are being removed from Indigenous families at a higher rate than when the Bringing them Home report was tabled in 1997 and Kevin Rudd said ‘Sorry’ in 2008. This is something that the Family Matters Campaign is working to address.

I cried as I enjoyed Uncle Archie Roach’s performance and I cried for Barbara and Audrey in Larissa Behrendt’s After the Apology.  But I was also inspired and proud of the contributions so many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, such as those presenting today for AATE, make every day, in every community.

Larissa Behrendt reflected in her Garth Boomer Keynote Address that self-determination of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people can sometimes be achieved by leading the way and speaking/acting for those most vulnerable in our society when they can’t for themselves; however, it is often more powerful to facilitate self-determination by creating the space for those vulnerable voices to come out on their own terms.

I immediately connected Larissa’s reflection with a comment in today’s workshop, where a teacher shared the story of a shy, young Aboriginal girl in her class who did not speak in class discussions and was too shy to deliver oral presentations. Emboldened by the class study of Ali Cobby Eckermann’s poem Grade One Primary, this young girl wrote her own story about her totem and shared it with the class, reciting it and then explaining its meaning. This girl was inspired and given courage to share her talents as a writer in a class where she would otherwise have remained silent. How simple it is: valuing your students’ voices in the classroom by representing their cultures in the texts you teach.

As Larissa Behrendt concluded tonight, the silences are as important as the words. Listen for the silences in your classroom and in your school. How can you take an wholistic approach to addressing those silences as a community?

Key points from speakers at the AATE Pre-Conference Institute

Tony Birch

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander writers are remarkably generous in sharing their work with audiences at festivals and in classrooms – they want to engage with readers
  • A classroom without Indigenous texts is bereft – the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander voices and points of view provide a reference point for students, with which to engage in political and social conversations
  • As a writer, Tony seeks to provide positive representations of Aboriginal people – he does not want to see them demonised, nor pitied. To feel sorry for someone is not an equitable relationship – you are still in power and the person you pity is placed in the position of feeling grateful for your pity. Birch doesn’t want to leave people at the end of a book wondering ‘where does this leave us?’; rather, he wants readers to find value in Aboriginal people
  • Saying we’re all the same devalues all of our stories – however, talk with students about the similarities and specificity of their contexts in relation to that of the contexts presented in Indigenous texts
  • Students generally approach Indigenous texts, and challenging topics, with courage and resilience – Birch has confidence in young people’s ability to engage with Aboriginal writing
  • If using a non-Indigenous author’s text on Indigenous topics, be aware of how they represent the topic, whose voice is heard, etc – and if possible complement with a text or point of view by an Indigenous person

Marcia Langton

  • SE QLD have closed the gap on Year 12 matriculation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students through individual case management, setting goals for districts and schools to work towards, and strong departmental leadership. SUCCESS IS POSSIBLE.
  • While we discuss great literature by Indigenous authors, remember that music is the key storytelling tool for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (as is the case for most oral cultures). Start to bring music into the English classroom as a way to hear Indigenous voices, too. Marcia recommends studying Djapana, Sunset Dreaming which is discussed by Aaron Corn here.
  • Marcia’s latest project is a comprehensive teacher resource: https://indigenousknowledge.research.unimelb.edu.au/
  • Also recommended: http://www.aboriginalastronomy.com.au/
  • Marcia’s latest resource for youth would be excellent professional development for teachers wanting to understand more about Indigenous cultures and histories. It comes with comprehensive teacher’s notes.


Ali Cobby Eckermann

  • Indigenous writing is a manifestation of our hopes and a declaration that we are still here and thriving.
  • Challenge for teachers is to become wholistic practitioners and take an wholistic approach to incorporating Indigenous voices (understand histories and cultures, engage with community, connect personally and spiritually)
  • Engage with world Indigenous poetry to enrich the experience of reading the Australian Indigenous viewpoint – see parallels in other nations’ experiences of colonisation
  • Teacher’s role is to bring out the conversation that students offer – listen, respond, make space for student voice – young people are confident and are speaking out and they want to discuss the hard issues, they want to challenge


My presentation and handouts are available here: AATE 2019 Pre-Conference Institute.




Science cross-curriculum perspectives

I know this is primarily an English teachers’ blog….but wanted to share this great work led by Joe Sambono, a Jingili man working with ACARA:



No excuses! Aboriginal perspectives in schools

Here is another great article challenging teachers to get outside their comfort zone and learn about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, cultures and histories. A good summary of top resources too. I would also add Victor Steffensen’s The Living Knowledge Place (http://www.livingknowledgeplace.com.au/index.php)

‘But I am NOT ABORIGINAL I don’t know how to do this stuff!’



8 Ways Aboriginal Pedagogy

An integrated HASS/Science unit applying the 8 ways Aboriginal pedagogy

This unit is designed around 6 full-day excursions with local Aboriginal rangers and cultural interpreters. Each lesson sequence describes one excursion and the related information and activities that can be delivered in the classroom. Contact details for the relevant traditional owners, rangers and cultural interpreters are available at the end of this document; teachers cannot engage authentically with this curriculum without consulting and collaborating with these key people.

Campbell High School Unit planner land management

For more information, contact myself or Adam Shipp, Yurbay Consultancies (formerly Greening Australia) – yurbayconsultancies@gmail.com; M 0414 454 571

8 ways pedagogy was developed and is managed by the Western NSW Regional Aboriginal Education Team, NSW Dept. of Education.

See Tyson Yunkaporta’s thesis on the 8 ways here.

I have mapped the 8 ways framework to Quality Teaching, AITSL Standards and ACT Directorate have added ‘Good Teaching by Design’, attached here.

ACT ED & Campbell High School 8 ways and QTM FA AITSL GTBD


Aboriginal Connections to water

Here are lesson plans from the ‘Water in the World’ Yr 7 Geography unit which incorporate Aboriginal perspectives.

aboriginal art symbols

aboriginal water connections teacher notes

Aboriginal water connections hand out

Yr 7 Aboriginal connections to water

AIATSIS Online Exhibition: Living off our Waters

Great reads from Magabala Books

Magabala Books Aboriginal Corporation in Broome has sent me some beautiful children’s picture books to promote.

Magabala has been in the game since 1990, producing high-quality Indigenous Australian literature.

I highly recommend you browse their collection at www.magabala.com

Here are some of their latest goodies:

The spotty dotty lady

Josie Wowolla Boyle & Fern Martins (Ill.)

2014, 31 pages


Teacher notes available on the Magabala website: http://www.magabala.com/resources.

This is a beautifully illustrated book with vibrant colours and stunning art. It has large and clear font.

It is about friendship among all races and types of people.  The sad lady’s only friends are her flowers.  She finds a spotty dotty flower which inspires her to paint spotty dotty designs on her tea cups, and then her kitchen, and then her whole house.  This attracts interest in the neighbourhood and the neighbours and their friends come to look.  They begin to get to know each other and make friends.  The lady throws them a party and paints their tea cups and after that she is never lonely again.  It shows how much we connect emotionally with nature, beauty and colour.

It is a great book for discussing the importance of friendship and community; and how hobbies like gardening and art can bring people together.

The little corroboree frog

Tracey Holton-Ramirez and Angela Ramirez (Ill.)

2013, 32 pages


Teacher notes available on the Magabala website: http://www.magabala.com/resources.

This book has large and clear font and has bright, watercolour-painting style illustrations.

The little corroboree frog is ultimately a conservation story – a frog wakes up from winter hibernation, mates with a female frog, waits for eggs to hatch but is troubled by the weather changing. The winter rains are not coming and there is rubbish in their habitat.  Meanwhile, a little boy and his father are exploring the area and the frog jumps on to the boy and leads the boy to his nest to show his home.  The boy realises that the frog is unhappy about humans’ treatment of his habitat and he and his dad clear it up and drive home discussing what they can do to help the frogs.

This is a great book to study within a unit on environment/conservation, and it includes a non-fiction section with frog facts.

Spinifex mouse

Norma MacDonald (writer and ill.)

2013, 40 pages


Teacher notes available on the Magabala website: http://www.magabala.com/resources.

This is a stunning book with lyrical language and elegant illustrations by an award-winning artist.  Little spinifex mouse is called ‘Cheeky’ and dances and teases the snake as she rests warming up on the rock – until the snake strikes, and the eagle comes and picks up the mouse, saving it.  He drops the mouse but the snake has caught up and strikes again; this time the eagle picks up the snake.  The mouse goes home and tells his family, saying he learnt his lesson and won’t be silly again – and the family decide to change his name to ‘Lucky’.

The writing is sophisticated, in third person, past tense and using dialogue and a range of literary devices such as repetition, alliteration and rhythm and simile.

There is a clear moral, that greed and boastful/showing off behaviour will make you unpopular and cause trouble.

There is information about habitat and the life cycle/predators, so this book also fits in with units on environment.

Silly Birds

Greg Driese (writer and ill.)

2014, 32 pages

Hard cover

Teacher notes available on the Magabala website: http://www.magabala.com/resources.

This evocative book tells a Dreaming story – Maliyan the eagle is a bird who always looked and listened because his parents taught him speaking too much was for the silly birds.  Maliyan grew wise and met Wagun, a silly bird who boasted that he was the best; he was loud and ran around, knocked people over, didn’t listen to elders.

Maliyan thought he was fun and followed him and started to act like him. More birds followed; they became careless and didn’t look after their environment.  The parents grew worried and upset.  Maliyan felt bad and went to the elders for advice. He remembered to look and listen and he grew wise again.  Wagun continued to be selfish.  He lost his ability to fly, and scratched around on the ground to find food. Today all Turkeys scratch around on the ground and can’t fly well.

The coda of the story is: “it is hard to soar like an eagle when you are surrounded by turkeys”.

This book has beautiful art, incorporating traditional symbols such as dot designs and animal tracks. It teaches children in a lovely manner, gentle but firm, like you are sitting with elders.

It is a great book to use when talking about peer pressure and setting your own goals, your own path in life; not letting others steer you off your course.

Two Mates

Melanie Prewitt, Maggie Prewitt – ill.

2012, 32 pages


Bold font, quite small

This book is based on a true story about Raf , a non-Indigenous boy who has spina bifida, and Jack, an Indigenous boy. They are growing up together in Broome and share a life of hunting, swimming, fishing and quad biking.

The story is reasonably simple, and takes us through illustrations of the boys doing each activity.  The illustrations are cleverly done so that it is not until the end of the book that the illustrations reveal Raf in a wheelchair. The illustrations, too, are simple – like bright crayon drawings. The understated appearance makes the revelation about Raf’s condition all the more compelling.

It is a story about friendship and crossing barriers – around both race and ‘disability’ (although, clearly, Raf is not prevented from participating in cool, fun little-boy activities).

The book includes photos of the real boys and their families as well as information about spina bifida.

It is a great book for teaching about compassion and embracing each other’s uniqueness.